LearningRx

Interested in learning more about Dr. Ken Gibson’s cognitive training programs? Visit LearningRx.com

LearningRx Research: Brain Training for Early Alzheimer’s

Posted by on Oct 1, 2019 in Brain Training for Seniors | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: Brain Training for Early Alzheimer’s

Multidisciplinary Intervention Creates Neural Changes and Improvements in Cognition and Daily Function in Early Alzheimer’s: Study Shows Adaptation of Bredesen Protocol Promising in Slowing Clinical Cognitive Decline September 13, 2019 – The results of our study just published in the Open BioMedical (OBM) journal Integrative and Complementary Medicine highlight the benefits of a functional medicine approach to slowing cognitive decline in adults over age 55 with clinical cognitive impairment including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers examined changes in cognitive skills, brain connectivity, and daily functioning following a multifaceted anti-neuroinflammatory intervention that included physical exercise, mental exercise, a grain-free/sugar-free diet, anti-inflammatory nutritional supplements, sleep optimization, and stress management within the context of a functional medicine practice for five patients with varying levels of cognitive impairment.  The key findings include: • Improvement and stability in cognition. After the nine-month intervention, three of the five patients were no longer classified as cognitively impaired, while a fourth patient improved from moderately-to-severely impaired to mildly impaired. The fifth patient who entered the study with Stage 2 Alzheimer’s remained stable. • Improved daily functioning and outlook. Patients reported improved memory, attention, mental clarity, as well as increased energy, better mood, and improved outlook on life. • Changes in brain connectivity visible on fMRI. fMRI analyses revealed changes in the brain that suggest improved efficiency, as well as changes in network connectivity that correlated with changes on neuropsychological tests. The study was led by functional medicine physician Randolph James, MD, of True Life Medicine, neuroscientist Christina Ledbetter, PhD, of LSU Health Science Center and Dick Carpenter, PhD, from University of Colorado Colorado Springs, along with cognitive psychologist Amy Lawson Moore, PhD, and Terissa Miller, MS Psy, from Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research. Xymogen Pharmaceuticals (FL) donated the supplements for the study and Penrad Imaging (CO) conducted the fMRIs. “The MRI findings were indeed exciting,” says Ledbetter. “Not only that we could use functional MRI to detect changes in connections between regions of interest in the brain, but also that those changes directly correlated with changes on dementia assessments.” The intervention was an adaptation of the Bredesen Protocol, a novel multifaceted approach to reversing Alzheimer’s disease by targeting inflammation. Neuro-inflammation is a prominent finding in age-related cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Numerous cellular pathways are associated with inflammatory responses and successful treatment of inflammation likely requires targeting these multiple pathways. Although the current study included the same variety of therapeutic approaches seen in Bredesen’s work, the study departed from Bredesen’s research protocols by including structured cognitive training delivered by clinicians in scheduled clinic appointments. “We wanted to increase compliance to this critical pillar of the intervention by adding the human delivery element. We weren’t convinced that computer games could provide the intensity, complexity, and motivation required to drive neuroplasticity, so we opted for human-delivered cognitive training,” says Moore. “It paid off. Patients were 100% compliant with this aspect of the intervention.” The current study also used standard neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessments for all patients to enable statistical analysis of the outcomes. The full study, “Feasibility of a Functional Medicine Approach to Slowing Clinical Cognitive Decline in Patients Over Age 55: A Multiple Case Study Report” is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.21926/obm.icm.1903054  ...

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LearningRx Research Bibliography

Posted by on Sep 22, 2019 in Brain Training for ADHD, Brain Training for Children & Adolescents, Brain Training for Seniors, Brain Training for TBI | Comments Off on LearningRx Research Bibliography

LearningRx Brain Training Research Studies Here is the most recent bibliography of LearningRx research: Carpenter, D., Ledbetter, C., & Moore, A.L. (2016). LearningRx cognitive training effects in children ages 8-14: A randomized controlled study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30(5), 815-826. doi: 10.1002/acp.3257. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/acp.3257 Gibson, K., Carpenter, D.M., Moore, A.L., & Mitchell, T. (2015). Training the brain to learn: Beyond vision therapy. Vision Development and Rehabilitation, 1(2), 120-129. Retrieved from https://www.covd.org/page/VDR_1_2 Hill, O.W., Zewelanji, S., & Faison, O. (2016). The Efficacy of the LearningRx Cognitive Training Program: Modality and Transfer Effects. Journal of Experimental Education: Learning, Instruction, and Cognition, 84(3), 600-620. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2015.1065218. Jedlicka, E. (2017). LearningRx cognitive training for children and adolescents ages 5-18: Effects on academic skills, behavior, and cognition. Frontiers in Education, 2(62). doi: 10.3389/feduc.2017.00062. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2017.00062/full   Ishanpara, P. D. (2013). Cognitive rehabilitation with LearningRx: Preliminary improvements in memory after traumatic brain injury. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. UMI No. 3574228 James, R., Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D., Miller, T., & Ledbetter, C. (2019). Feasibility of a Functional Medicine Approach to Slowing Clinical Cognitive Decline in Patients Over Age 55: A Multiple Case Study Report. OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine, 4(3). doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.1903054 https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/MCI-Intervention_James-et-al.pdf Ledbetter, C., Moore, A.L., Mitchell, T. (2017). Cognitive effects of ThinkRx cognitive rehabilitation training for eleven soldiers with brain injury: A retrospective chart review. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(825). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00825. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00825/full Ledbetter, C., & Moore, A. (2018). Neuroimaging outcomes of a cognitive rehabilitation training program. Journal of Neuroimaging, 28(2), 225-233. doi: 10.1111/jon.12507. Retrieved from https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Neuroimaging-Outcomes-of-a-Cognitive-Rehabilitation-Training-Program_-J-of-Neuroimaging-excerpt.pdf Ledbetter, C., Faison, M.O., & Patterson, J. (2016). Correlation of cognitive training gains and resting state functional connectivity. Presented at Society for Neuroscience, November 2016, San Diego, CA. Retrieved from https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/SFNposters_CLedbetter.pdf Luckey, A. J. (2009). Cognitive and academic gains as a result of cognitive training. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. UMI No. 3391981 Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Ledbetter, C., & Miller, T.M. (2018). Clinician-delivered cognitive training for children with attention problems: Transfer effects on cognitive and behavior from the ThinkRx randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 14, 1671-1683. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S165418. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027847/ Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Miller, T.M., & Ledbetter, C., (2019). ThinkRx Cognitive Training for Adults over Age 50: Clinician-Caregiver Partners in Delivery as Effective as Clinician-Only Delivery. Psychology and Neuroscience, 12(2), 291-306. doi: 10.1037/pne0000162. Author’s copy available at https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/ThinkRx-for-Adults-Over-50_Psy-and-Neuroscience_2019.pdf Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Miller, T.M., & Ledbetter, C. (2019). Comparing Two Methods of Delivering ThinkRx Cognitive Training to Children Ages 8-14: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Equivalency. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, 3(3), 261-270. doi.org/10.1007/s41465-018-0094-z. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41465-018-0094-z Moore, A.L., & Ledbetter, C. (2019). The Promise of Clinician-Delivered Cognitive Training for Children Diagnosed with ADHD. Journal of Mental Health and Clinical Psychology, 3(3), 3-8. doi: 10.29245/2578-2959/2019/3.1180. Retrieved from https://www.mentalhealthjournal.org/articles/the-promise-of-cliniciandelivered-cognitive-training-for-children-diagnosed-with-adhd.pdf Moore, A.L., & Miller, T. (2018). Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 11, 25-35. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S152781. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5813948/ Moore, A.L., James, R., Carpenter, D., Miller, T., & Ledbetter, C. (2018). MRI and Neuropsychological Outcomes following a Functional Medicine Intervention with Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A Multiple Case Study. Presentation at American Psychological Association Annual Convention, August 2018, San Francisco, CA. Retrieved from https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/2018-APA_MCI-Poster_Moore-et-al.pdf Moore, A.L., & Ledbetter,...

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LearningRx Research: A Review of Brain Training for ADHD

Posted by on Sep 5, 2019 in Brain Training for ADHD | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: A Review of Brain Training for ADHD

Humans Are Better than Computers at Delivering Brain Training to Children with ADHD Researchers Explain How Clinician-Delivered Brain Training is More Beneficial than Computer Brain Games for Remediating Multiple Cognitive and Social-Emotional Struggles Frequently Associated with ADHD July 29, 2019 – Not only do children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently struggle with memory and speed of information processing, they also navigate deficits in social cognition and self-esteem. Mainstream approaches to treating ADHD such as central nervous system stimulants and behavioral therapy do not adequately address these struggles. Although several companies market computerized brain training software for children with ADHD, these games also fall short in remediating the multiple cognitive and emotional deficits found in ADHD. In a review of ADHD intervention research published in the latest issue of the Journal of Mental Health and Clinical Psychology, we suggest that humans—not computers—are best suited for delivering brain training to children diagnosed with ADHD.  The review outlines the benefits of working one-on-one with a human brain trainer, including increasing treatment compliance and motivation, reducing attrition, and making the leap from improvements on the trained tasks to transfer effects–or “real life” benefits outside the training environment. A clinician can provide instant and specific feedback, adapt the training tasks during the session, add complexity and intensity to the tasks, and help the client apply new skills to the outside world. The review was conducted by educational psychologist Amy Lawson Moore, PhD from Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research and clinical neuroscientist Christina Ledbetter, PhD from Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center who suggest that clinicians need to rethink their targets of treatment in this population. “ADHD is much more than a disorder of attention,” says Moore. “Children with ADHD typically have weaknesses in working memory, long-term memory, and processing speed as well as deficits in social cognition, self-esteem, and motivation. Therefore, it is critical that an intervention targets these multiple areas. We haven’t yet met a computer that can accomplish that. A human clinician, however, can.” The researchers reviewed existing research on several computer-based brain training programs, finding shortfalls with each of them. They suggest adoption of a clinician-delivered brain training methodology for children with ADHD and highlight the research on LearningRx as an example of one program that targets not only the complex cognitive deficits in ADHD but also the social-emotional struggles frequently associated with ADHD in children. The full article, entitled “The Promise of Clinician-Delivered Cognitive Training for Children Diagnosed with ADHD” can be found at https://www.mentalhealthjournal.org/articles/the-promise-of-cliniciandelivered-cognitive-training-for-children-diagnosed-with-adhd.html. Moore and Ledbetter have published multiple papers on clinician-delivered cognitive training, and have found that human delivery, complexity, and intensity are the keys to effective brain training, particularly with the ADHD population. “We have to intensely train a variety of cognitive skills—not just attention—if we want the intervention to effectively impact the child’s thinking, learning, and behavior,” says Ledbetter. “And we have to acknowledge the key role of the clinician in the training paradigm, particularly his or her impact on motivation and self-efficacy.” Their associated work on brain training can be found at...

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Can Brain Training Improve ACT Scores?

Posted by on Jun 19, 2019 in Brain Training for Children & Adolescents | Comments Off on Can Brain Training Improve ACT Scores?

Open Letter to College Admission Offices: The Contribution of Cognitive Training to Improved College Entrance Exam Performance Research has shown us again and again that cognitive skills correlate with standardized math and language arts test scores, and that IQ scores are significant predictors of performance on college entrance exams. Thus, it is not only plausible but probable that strengthening the individual cognitive skills that comprise the composite IQ score can contribute to increased performance on standardized tests. Cognitive skill deficits—especially deficits in working memory, processing speed, and executive functions—are common among struggling students. Because cognitive skills are significant predictors of academic performance, interventions that remediate cognitive deficits are critical to maximizing a student’s academic success. Cognitive training programs like those offered at LearningRx brain training centers are a prime example of how an intervention can target and remediate weak cognitive skills through repeated engagement in intense mental tasks. By isolating weaknesses in cognition and exposing a student to concentrated remediation exercises targeting those weak skills, cognitive training can improve not only the trained skills but related ones as well. Unlike tutoring, cognitive training does not re-teach content but, instead, enhances the individual underlying learning skills such as working memory, long-term memory, processing speed, reasoning, attention, and visual and auditory processing—all skills that contribute to an individual’s ability to think and learn efficiently. What evidence do we have that cognitive training can help improve achievement test scores? Thanks to the amazing plasticity of the brain, we can document the malleability of cognition with changes on standardized measures of intelligence and by using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to illustrate changes in neural connectivity following an intervention. What’s more, those neural changes have been shown to correlate with changes on cognitive test scores. LearningRx measures student progress by administering both cognitive and achievement tests prior to beginning cognitive training and immediately after completing a cognitive training program. Among the 9,959 cognitive training clients who completed a reading intervention program between 2010 and 2018, the average gain in reading skills was 3.5 years, with the largest gain of 6.3 years in Sound Awareness following training. All changes were statistically significant. Among the 3,521 cognitive training clients who completed a math intervention between 2010 and 2018, the average gain in math skills was 3.2 years, with the largest gain of 3.6 years in Quantitative Concepts following training. All of those changes were also statistically significant. These same clients averaged a 15-point gain in overall IQ score along with statistically significant changes in individual cognitive skills—changes that have also been documented in multiple controlled trials and published peer-reviewed studies. How, then, can cognitive training improve scores on tests that measure knowledge of content? The need for multiple strong cognitive skills for effective test-taking applies across content areas and is independent from the content except for the ability to encode and recall prior knowledge. For example, a student needs strong sustained attention skills to focus on a test, particularly a lengthy one. He also needs strong memory skills. Not only must he be able to recall prior knowledge, he must have the working memory capacity to keep information in mind while using it to answer test questions. The Math section of the ACT requires recall and application of memorized mathematical formulas, without which a student cannot...

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LearningRx Research: One-on-One Brain Training Improves Cognition and Daily Functioning for Adults over Age 50

Posted by on Feb 11, 2019 in Brain Training for Seniors, Uncategorized | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: One-on-One Brain Training Improves Cognition and Daily Functioning for Adults over Age 50

New Research Shows LearningRx Cognitive Training Provides Hope for Older Adults with Memory Problems February 8, 2019 – The results of our study just published in the APA journal Psychology and Neuroscience highlight the benefits of human-delivered brain training for adults over age 50, including better cognition as well as improved mood and life skills. In the study with 292 adults between the ages of 50 and 94 with memory or attention problems, researchers found statistically significant changes in long-term memory, processing speed, auditory processing, fluid reasoning, working memory, and visual processing for both treatment groups following 79 hours of one-on-one cognitive training. In addition, they noted improvements in mood, including bolstered confidence, hope, perseverance, reduced anxiety, and overall outlook. Participants also reported changes in work performance, hobbies and sports, driving, and managing daily responsibilities. The study was led by Amy Lawson Moore, PhD at Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research along with Dick Carpenter, PhD from University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Christina Ledbetter, PhD from LSU Health Sciences Center, and Terissa Miller, MS Psy also of Gibson Institute. “This is the first study on LearningRx cognitive training to evaluate changes in cognition plus the transfer of training to real life benefits for older adults,” explains Dr. Moore. “Many studies on brain training have shown improvements in the trained skills, but this is the Holy Grail of cognitive training—transfer to life improvements. We think the human element of delivery is the secret to achieving this transfer. That will be our next research focus.” The study adds to the growing convergence of evidence on the benefits of LearningRx clinician-delivered cognitive training which continues to distinguish it from the “brain games” industry. Dr. Ledbetter, a clinical neuroscientist, states, “The intensity in which a human being can deliver the training tasks is not something that can be replicated by a computer game. We believe it is that intensity coupled with the motivation of working with a personal trainer that drives the changes we are seeing.” The training program used in the study included 35 training procedures with more than 1000 variations that are sequenced in order of difficulty. A metronome and timer are added to the tasks to increase intensity and prevent mental breaks. Each training session lasts 60-90 minutes and participants either attended all training sessions in the clinic or split the sessions with caregivers trained to deliver part of the training at home. In the current study, both delivery methods resulted in similar positive outcomes. The study abstract, “ThinkRx Cognitive Training for Adults Over Age 50: Clinician-Caregiver Partners in Delivery as Effective as Clinician-Only Delivery” is available at https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fpne0000162 The full article can be accessed here on the corresponding author’s website: https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/ThinkRx-for-Adults-Over-50_Psy-and-Neuroscience_2019.pdf    ...

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LearningRx Research: Two Methods of Delivering ThinkRx for Children

Posted by on Sep 24, 2018 in Brain Training for Children & Adolescents, Uncategorized | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: Two Methods of Delivering ThinkRx for Children

Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Miller, T.M., & Ledbetter, C., (2019). Comparing Two Methods of Delivering ThinkRx Cognitive Training to Children Ages 8-14: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Equivalency. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, 3(3), 261-270 . doi.org/10.1007/s41465-018-0094-z In a randomized controlled trial assessing equivalence of parallel groups of children ages 8-14, we compared cognitive outcomes between a group who received 60 hours of ThinkRx cognitive training delivered one-on-one by a clinician (n = 20) versus a group of children who received 30 hours of ThinkRx delivered by a clinician and the remaining 30 hours through supervised digital training procedures in a computer lab (n = 18). Results showed no significant differences between groups on tests of working memory, logic and reasoning, auditory processing, visual processing, processing speed, or overall IQ score. Results were significantly different on the test of long-term memory. These results suggest that both delivery models are equivalent cognitive training interventions for children. Read the article (Link to results...

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LearningRx Research: MCI Study Presented at 2018 APA Convention

Posted by on Sep 5, 2018 in Brain Training for Seniors | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: MCI Study Presented at 2018 APA Convention

MRI and Neuropsychological Outcomes following a Functional Medicine Intervention with Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A Multiple Case Study.  August 31, 2018 — The preliminary results of our MCI study were presented at the 2018 American Psychological Association Annual Conference in San Francisco.  Using a multiple case study design, we examined neural connectivity with fMRI, executive function, memory, attention, reasoning, everyday functioning, and overall IQ score for 5 clients with varying levels of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) before the intervention, after 12 weeks on functional medicine (FM) protocols (grain-free/sugar-free diet, nutritional supplements, aerobic activity, optimized sleep & stress reduction) without cognitive training, and again following the addition and completion of 72 hours of cognitive training. In all five cases, improvement in both cognitive and life skills was achieved with a functional medicine protocol that included cognitive training. Normalization of the Default Mode Network (DMN) was evident along with the appearance of anti-correlations and decreased hyperconnectivity. A multidisciplinary approach to slowing or reversing cognitive decline appears to be promising. Link to presentation Reference: Moore, A.L., James, R., Carpenter, D., Miller, T., & Ledbetter, C. (2018). MRI and Neuropsychological Outcomes following a Functional Medicine Intervention with Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A Multiple Case Study. Presentation at American Psychological Association Annual Convention, August 2018, San Francisco,...

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LearningRx Research: Brain Training for ADHD

Posted by on Jun 26, 2018 in Brain Training for ADHD, Brain Training for Children & Adolescents | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: Brain Training for ADHD

In a randomized controlled trial, children with ADHD who completed 60 hours of ThinkRx cognitive training realized significant clinical cognitive change AND behavioral improvements.  The study, “Clinician-delivered cognitive training for children with attention problems: Transfer effects on cognitive and behavior from the ThinkRx randomized controlled trial,” was just published in the journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment.  Purpose: The impact of attention problems on academic and social functioning coupled with the large number of children failing to respond to stimulant medication or behavioral therapy makes adjunctive therapies such as cognitive training appealing for families and clinicians of children with attention difficulties or childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the results of cognitive training studies have failed to find far transfer effects with this population. This study examined the quantitative cognitive effects and parent-reported behavioral effects of a clinician-delivered cognitive training program with children who have attention problems. Patients and methods: Using a randomized controlled study design, we examined the impact of a clinician-delivered cognitive training program on processing speed, fluid reasoning, memory, visual processing, auditory processing, attention, overall intelligence quotient score, and behavior of students (n=13) aged 8–14 years with attention problems. Participants were randomly assigned to either a waitlist control group or a treatment group for 60 hours of cognitive training with ThinkRx, a clinician-delivered intervention that targets multiple cognitive skills with game-like, but rigorous mental tasks in 60–90-minute training sessions at least 3 days per week. Results: Results included greater mean pretest to posttest change scores on all variables for the treatment group versus the control group with statistically significant differences noted in working memory, long-term memory, logic and reasoning, auditory processing, and intelligence quotient score. Qualitative outcomes included parent-reported changes in confidence, cooperation, and self-discipline. Conclusion: Children with attention problems who completed 60 hours of clinician-delivered ThinkRx cognitive training realized both cognitive and behavioral improvements Read the article https://www.dovepress.com/articles.php?article_id=39028 Link to video abstract:...

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LearningRx Research: Brain Training for Children with Learning Struggles

Posted by on Jun 22, 2018 in Brain Training for ADHD, Brain Training for Children & Adolescents | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: Brain Training for Children with Learning Struggles

Here’s a selection of research studies on LearningRx brain training for children and adolescents with learning struggles: Carpenter, D., Ledbetter, C., & Moore, A.L. (2016). LearningRx cognitive training effects in children ages 8-14: A randomized controlled study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30(5), 815-826. doi: 10.1002/acp.3257 In a randomized controlled study, the effects of a one-on-one cognitive training program on IQ, memory, visual and auditory processing, processing speed, reasoning, and attention for students ages 8-14 were examined. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group to complete 60 hours of cognitive training or to a wait-list control group. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in general intelligence and individual cognitive skills after completing cognitive training with ThinkRx, a LearningRx program. Results showed statistically significant differences between groups on all outcome measures except for attention. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are examined. Link to article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.3257/full   Jedlicka, E. (2017). LearningRx cognitive training for children and adolescents ages 5-18: Effects on academic skills, behavior, and cognition. Frontiers in Education, 2(62). doi: 10.3389/feduc.2017.00062 This study with 178 students ages 5-18 investigated whether ThinkRx and ReadRx clinician-delivered cognitive training programs reduced academic difficulties and oppositional behavior for school-age children with learning struggles compared to a control group.  Results indicated there were statistically significant differences overall between the intervention groups and the control group on all measures of academic difficulties. Both intervention groups saw a reduction in academic difficulty ratings following training while the control group saw an increase in academic difficulty during a comparable time interval.  Both intervention groups achieved statistically significant changes on objective cognitive test measures as well. Link to article: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2017.00062/full   Hill, O.W., Zewelanji, S., & Faison, O. (2016). The Efficacy of the LearningRx Cognitive Training Program: Modality and Transfer Effects. Journal of Experimental Education: Learning, Instruction, and Cognition, 84(3), 600-620. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2015.1065218. This article describes two trials testing the efficacy of the LearningRx one-on-one cognitive training program and its computer-based version (Brainskills) in laboratory and school settings. Study 1 tested Brainskills in a laboratory setting with 322 middle school students. Paired t-tests revealed significant gains on all cognitive measures and math performance after 3 weeks of training. Study 2, a randomized control study, included 225 high school students randomly assigned to one of three conditions: LearningRx, Brainskills, or study hall (control) in a school setting for a 15-week training period. Univariate ANCOVAs revealed significantly higher scores for the treatment groups compared with controls on working memory, logic and reasoning, and three of four math attitude measures. Funded by $3M National Science Foundation (NSF) grant. Link to abstract: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2015.1065218   Gibson, K., Carpenter, D.M., Moore, A.L., & Mitchell, T. (2015). Training the brain to learn: Beyond vision therapy. Vision Development and Rehabilitation, 1(2), 120-129. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the comprehensive cognitive training program, ThinkRx. Sixty-one children (ages 6-18) were given pretest and post-test cognitive assessments. Thirty-one students completed a 24-week cognitive training program in a LearningRx center. A matched control group of thirty children did not receive training. Multiple regression analyses indicated that treatment group membership was a statistically significant predictor of outcomes in long-term memory, logic and reasoning, working memory, processing speed, auditory processing, and Word Attack. The treatment group realized significantly greater gains in six...

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LearningRx Research: Brain Training for Traumatic Brain Injury

Posted by on Jun 22, 2018 in Brain Training for TBI | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: Brain Training for Traumatic Brain Injury

Here’s a selection of research on LearningRx brain training for traumatic brain injury (TBI): Ledbetter, C., Moore, A.L., Mitchell, T. (2017). Cognitive effects of ThinkRx cognitive rehabilitation training for eleven soldiers with brain injury: A retrospective chart review. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(825). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00825 The current study examined the cognitive outcomes following ThinkRx, a clinician-delivered cognitive rehabilitation training program for soldiers recovering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acquired brain injury (ABI). In a retrospective chart review, we examined cognitive outcomes of 11 cases who had completed an average of 80 hours of ThinkRx cognitive rehabilitation training delivered by clinicians and supplemented with digital training exercises. Outcome measures included scores from six cognitive skill batteries on the Woodcock Johnson  III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Participants achieved gains in all cognitive skills tested and achieved statistically significant changes in long-term memory, processing speed, auditory processing, and fluid reasoning with very large effect sizes. Clinically significant changes in multiple cognitive skills were also noted across cases. Link to article: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00825/full   Ledbetter, C., & Moore, A. (2018). Neuroimaging outcomes of a cognitive rehabilitation training program. Journal of Neuroimaging, 28(2), 225-233. doi: 10.1111/jon.12507 To investigate if aberrant brain connectivity and changes in brain connectivity (a neuroimaging marker of neuroplasticity), were evident prior to and after completion of a robust cognitive training program, a series of case studies were carried out in subjects with varying degrees of traumatic brain injuries (n = 5) and cognitive impairment (n = 5). MR exams were acquired on all subjects prior to and upon completion of the ThinkRx cognitive training program. In addition to MR exams, all subjects completed pre-post neuropsychological testing (WJ-IV) and condition-specific rating scales. For all cases, neuropsychological testing and qualitative outcomes measures increased, supporting that the robustness of the training program held for each imaged case study. Normalization of DMN connectivity, including decreased hyperconnectivity and reoccurrence of anticorrelated activity, was evident in the most severe TBI case. At the group level, significant training-induced changes in neural connectivity were identified.  Read the article. Or read the abstract on pages 230-231:Neuroimaging Outcomes for TBI and MCI_J of Neuroimaging   Moore, A.L., & Ledbetter, C. (2018). MRI, qEEG, & neuropsychological outcomes following cognitive rehabilitation training for severe traumatic brain injury: A clinical case study. Presentation at Brain Injury Summit, Jan 2018, Vail, CO. Using a single case design, we examined neural connectivity changes with fMRI, qEEG, and changes in IQ score, working memory, long-term memory, visual & auditory processing, processing speed, attention, reasoning, and everyday functioning following 60 hours of cognitive training 8 years after a severe Traumatic Brain Injury.  Neuropsychological testing results showed a 21-point increase in IQ score and significant gains in working memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, and visual processing; as well as gains in long-term memory and auditory processing.  FMRI showed normalization of the Default Mode Network (DMN) with reappearance of anti-correlations, and decreased hyperconnectivity was evident post-training.  Post qEEG showed normalization of activity in the left frontal region which was previously abnormal.  Functional outcomes included improved motivation for life, better focus and problem-solving, improved mood, no deficits in daily living tasks, and a return to former high level career field. Link to presentation   Moore, A.L., Ledbetter, C., & Carpenter, D. (2017). MRI and neuropsychological outcomes following cognitive rehabilitation training...

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