Brain Training for Children & Adolescents

LearningRx Research Bibliography

Posted by on Sep 22, 2019 in Brain Training for ADHD, Brain Training for Children & Adolescents, Brain Training for Seniors, Brain Training for TBI | Comments Off on LearningRx Research Bibliography

LearningRx Brain Training Research Studies Here is the most recent bibliography of LearningRx research: Carpenter, D., Ledbetter, C., & Moore, A.L. (2016). LearningRx cognitive training effects in children ages 8-14: A randomized controlled study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30(5), 815-826. doi: 10.1002/acp.3257. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/acp.3257 Gibson, K., Carpenter, D.M., Moore, A.L., & Mitchell, T. (2015). Training the brain to learn: Beyond vision therapy. Vision Development and Rehabilitation, 1(2), 120-129. Retrieved from https://www.covd.org/page/VDR_1_2 Hill, O.W., Zewelanji, S., & Faison, O. (2016). The Efficacy of the LearningRx Cognitive Training Program: Modality and Transfer Effects. Journal of Experimental Education: Learning, Instruction, and Cognition, 84(3), 600-620. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2015.1065218. Jedlicka, E. (2017). LearningRx cognitive training for children and adolescents ages 5-18: Effects on academic skills, behavior, and cognition. Frontiers in Education, 2(62). doi: 10.3389/feduc.2017.00062. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2017.00062/full   Ishanpara, P. D. (2013). Cognitive rehabilitation with LearningRx: Preliminary improvements in memory after traumatic brain injury. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. UMI No. 3574228 James, R., Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D., Miller, T., & Ledbetter, C. (2019). Feasibility of a Functional Medicine Approach to Slowing Clinical Cognitive Decline in Patients Over Age 55: A Multiple Case Study Report. OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine, 4(3). doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.1903054 https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/MCI-Intervention_James-et-al.pdf Ledbetter, C., Moore, A.L., Mitchell, T. (2017). Cognitive effects of ThinkRx cognitive rehabilitation training for eleven soldiers with brain injury: A retrospective chart review. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(825). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00825. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00825/full Ledbetter, C., & Moore, A. (2018). Neuroimaging outcomes of a cognitive rehabilitation training program. Journal of Neuroimaging, 28(2), 225-233. doi: 10.1111/jon.12507. Retrieved from https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Neuroimaging-Outcomes-of-a-Cognitive-Rehabilitation-Training-Program_-J-of-Neuroimaging-excerpt.pdf Ledbetter, C., Faison, M.O., & Patterson, J. (2016). Correlation of cognitive training gains and resting state functional connectivity. Presented at Society for Neuroscience, November 2016, San Diego, CA. Retrieved from https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/SFNposters_CLedbetter.pdf Luckey, A. J. (2009). Cognitive and academic gains as a result of cognitive training. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. UMI No. 3391981 Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Ledbetter, C., & Miller, T.M. (2018). Clinician-delivered cognitive training for children with attention problems: Transfer effects on cognitive and behavior from the ThinkRx randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 14, 1671-1683. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S165418. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027847/ Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Miller, T.M., & Ledbetter, C., (2019). ThinkRx Cognitive Training for Adults over Age 50: Clinician-Caregiver Partners in Delivery as Effective as Clinician-Only Delivery. Psychology and Neuroscience, 12(2), 291-306. doi: 10.1037/pne0000162. Author’s copy available at https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/ThinkRx-for-Adults-Over-50_Psy-and-Neuroscience_2019.pdf Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Miller, T.M., & Ledbetter, C. (2019). Comparing Two Methods of Delivering ThinkRx Cognitive Training to Children Ages 8-14: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Equivalency. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, 3(3), 261-270. doi.org/10.1007/s41465-018-0094-z. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41465-018-0094-z Moore, A.L., & Ledbetter, C. (2019). The Promise of Clinician-Delivered Cognitive Training for Children Diagnosed with ADHD. Journal of Mental Health and Clinical Psychology, 3(3), 3-8. doi: 10.29245/2578-2959/2019/3.1180. Retrieved from https://www.mentalhealthjournal.org/articles/the-promise-of-cliniciandelivered-cognitive-training-for-children-diagnosed-with-adhd.pdf Moore, A.L., & Miller, T. (2018). Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 11, 25-35. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S152781. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5813948/ Moore, A.L., James, R., Carpenter, D., Miller, T., & Ledbetter, C. (2018). MRI and Neuropsychological Outcomes following a Functional Medicine Intervention with Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A Multiple Case Study. Presentation at American Psychological Association Annual Convention, August 2018, San Francisco, CA. Retrieved from https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/2018-APA_MCI-Poster_Moore-et-al.pdf Moore, A.L., & Ledbetter, C. (2018). MRI, qEEG, & neuropsychological outcomes following cognitive rehabilitation training for severe traumatic brain injury: A clinical case study. Presentation at Brain Injury Summit, Jan 2018, Vail, CO. Retrieved from https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/2018-TBI-Summit-Presentation_MooreLedbetter_web.pdf Moore, A.L., Ledbetter, C., & Carpenter, D. (2017). MRI and neuropsychological outcomes following cognitive rehabilitation training in traumatic...

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Can Brain Training Improve ACT Scores?

Posted by on Jun 19, 2019 in Brain Training for Children & Adolescents | Comments Off on Can Brain Training Improve ACT Scores?

Open Letter to College Admission Offices: The Contribution of Cognitive Training to Improved College Entrance Exam Performance Research has shown us again and again that cognitive skills correlate with standardized math and language arts test scores, and that IQ scores are significant predictors of performance on college entrance exams. Thus, it is not only plausible but probable that strengthening the individual cognitive skills that comprise the composite IQ score can contribute to increased performance on standardized tests. Cognitive skill deficits—especially deficits in working memory, processing speed, and executive functions—are common among struggling students. Because cognitive skills are significant predictors of academic performance, interventions that remediate cognitive deficits are critical to maximizing a student’s academic success. Cognitive training programs like those offered at LearningRx brain training centers are a prime example of how an intervention can target and remediate weak cognitive skills through repeated engagement in intense mental tasks. By isolating weaknesses in cognition and exposing a student to concentrated remediation exercises targeting those weak skills, cognitive training can improve not only the trained skills but related ones as well. Unlike tutoring, cognitive training does not re-teach content but, instead, enhances the individual underlying learning skills such as working memory, long-term memory, processing speed, reasoning, attention, and visual and auditory processing—all skills that contribute to an individual’s ability to think and learn efficiently. What evidence do we have that cognitive training can help improve achievement test scores? Thanks to the amazing plasticity of the brain, we can document the malleability of cognition with changes on standardized measures of intelligence and by using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to illustrate changes in neural connectivity following an intervention. What’s more, those neural changes have been shown to correlate with changes on cognitive test scores. LearningRx measures student progress by administering both cognitive and achievement tests prior to beginning cognitive training and immediately after completing a cognitive training program. Among the 9,959 cognitive training clients who completed a reading intervention program between 2010 and 2018, the average gain in reading skills was 3.5 years, with the largest gain of 6.3 years in Sound Awareness following training. All changes were statistically significant. Among the 3,521 cognitive training clients who completed a math intervention between 2010 and 2018, the average gain in math skills was 3.2 years, with the largest gain of 3.6 years in Quantitative Concepts following training. All of those changes were also statistically significant. These same clients averaged a 15-point gain in overall IQ score along with statistically significant changes in individual cognitive skills—changes that have also been documented in multiple controlled trials and published peer-reviewed studies. How, then, can cognitive training improve scores on tests that measure knowledge of content? The need for multiple strong cognitive skills for effective test-taking applies across content areas and is independent from the content except for the ability to encode and recall prior knowledge. For example, a student needs strong sustained attention skills to focus on a test, particularly a lengthy one. He also needs strong memory skills. Not only must he be able to recall prior knowledge, he must have the working memory capacity to keep information in mind while using it to answer test questions. The Math section of the ACT requires recall and application of memorized mathematical formulas, without which a student cannot perform well. A student must also have strong reasoning skills, both inductive and deductive, as well as rapid processing speed. Tests like the ACT and SAT are notoriously fast-paced. He must be able to quickly but effectively read each question and the answer choices while using reasoning skills to determine...

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LearningRx Research: Two Methods of Delivering ThinkRx for Children

Posted by on Sep 24, 2018 in Brain Training for Children & Adolescents, Uncategorized | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: Two Methods of Delivering ThinkRx for Children

Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Miller, T.M., & Ledbetter, C., (2019). Comparing Two Methods of Delivering ThinkRx Cognitive Training to Children Ages 8-14: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Equivalency. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, 3(3), 261-270 . doi.org/10.1007/s41465-018-0094-z In a randomized controlled trial assessing equivalence of parallel groups of children ages 8-14, we compared cognitive outcomes between a group who received 60 hours of ThinkRx cognitive training delivered one-on-one by a clinician (n = 20) versus a group of children who received 30 hours of ThinkRx delivered by a clinician and the remaining 30 hours through supervised digital training procedures in a computer lab (n = 18). Results showed no significant differences between groups on tests of working memory, logic and reasoning, auditory processing, visual processing, processing speed, or overall IQ score. Results were significantly different on the test of long-term memory. These results suggest that both delivery models are equivalent cognitive training interventions for children. Read the article (Link to results...

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LearningRx Research: Brain Training for ADHD

Posted by on Jun 26, 2018 in Brain Training for ADHD, Brain Training for Children & Adolescents | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: Brain Training for ADHD

In a randomized controlled trial, children with ADHD who completed 60 hours of ThinkRx cognitive training realized significant clinical cognitive change AND behavioral improvements.  The study, “Clinician-delivered cognitive training for children with attention problems: Transfer effects on cognitive and behavior from the ThinkRx randomized controlled trial,” was just published in the journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment.  Purpose: The impact of attention problems on academic and social functioning coupled with the large number of children failing to respond to stimulant medication or behavioral therapy makes adjunctive therapies such as cognitive training appealing for families and clinicians of children with attention difficulties or childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the results of cognitive training studies have failed to find far transfer effects with this population. This study examined the quantitative cognitive effects and parent-reported behavioral effects of a clinician-delivered cognitive training program with children who have attention problems. Patients and methods: Using a randomized controlled study design, we examined the impact of a clinician-delivered cognitive training program on processing speed, fluid reasoning, memory, visual processing, auditory processing, attention, overall intelligence quotient score, and behavior of students (n=13) aged 8–14 years with attention problems. Participants were randomly assigned to either a waitlist control group or a treatment group for 60 hours of cognitive training with ThinkRx, a clinician-delivered intervention that targets multiple cognitive skills with game-like, but rigorous mental tasks in 60–90-minute training sessions at least 3 days per week. Results: Results included greater mean pretest to posttest change scores on all variables for the treatment group versus the control group with statistically significant differences noted in working memory, long-term memory, logic and reasoning, auditory processing, and intelligence quotient score. Qualitative outcomes included parent-reported changes in confidence, cooperation, and self-discipline. Conclusion: Children with attention problems who completed 60 hours of clinician-delivered ThinkRx cognitive training realized both cognitive and behavioral improvements Read the article https://www.dovepress.com/articles.php?article_id=39028 Link to video abstract:...

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LearningRx Research: Brain Training for Children with Learning Struggles

Posted by on Jun 22, 2018 in Brain Training for ADHD, Brain Training for Children & Adolescents | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: Brain Training for Children with Learning Struggles

Here’s a selection of research studies on LearningRx brain training for children and adolescents with learning struggles: Carpenter, D., Ledbetter, C., & Moore, A.L. (2016). LearningRx cognitive training effects in children ages 8-14: A randomized controlled study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30(5), 815-826. doi: 10.1002/acp.3257 In a randomized controlled study, the effects of a one-on-one cognitive training program on IQ, memory, visual and auditory processing, processing speed, reasoning, and attention for students ages 8-14 were examined. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group to complete 60 hours of cognitive training or to a wait-list control group. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in general intelligence and individual cognitive skills after completing cognitive training with ThinkRx, a LearningRx program. Results showed statistically significant differences between groups on all outcome measures except for attention. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are examined. Link to article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.3257/full   Jedlicka, E. (2017). LearningRx cognitive training for children and adolescents ages 5-18: Effects on academic skills, behavior, and cognition. Frontiers in Education, 2(62). doi: 10.3389/feduc.2017.00062 This study with 178 students ages 5-18 investigated whether ThinkRx and ReadRx clinician-delivered cognitive training programs reduced academic difficulties and oppositional behavior for school-age children with learning struggles compared to a control group.  Results indicated there were statistically significant differences overall between the intervention groups and the control group on all measures of academic difficulties. Both intervention groups saw a reduction in academic difficulty ratings following training while the control group saw an increase in academic difficulty during a comparable time interval.  Both intervention groups achieved statistically significant changes on objective cognitive test measures as well. Link to article: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2017.00062/full   Hill, O.W., Zewelanji, S., & Faison, O. (2016). The Efficacy of the LearningRx Cognitive Training Program: Modality and Transfer Effects. Journal of Experimental Education: Learning, Instruction, and Cognition, 84(3), 600-620. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2015.1065218. This article describes two trials testing the efficacy of the LearningRx one-on-one cognitive training program and its computer-based version (Brainskills) in laboratory and school settings. Study 1 tested Brainskills in a laboratory setting with 322 middle school students. Paired t-tests revealed significant gains on all cognitive measures and math performance after 3 weeks of training. Study 2, a randomized control study, included 225 high school students randomly assigned to one of three conditions: LearningRx, Brainskills, or study hall (control) in a school setting for a 15-week training period. Univariate ANCOVAs revealed significantly higher scores for the treatment groups compared with controls on working memory, logic and reasoning, and three of four math attitude measures. Funded by $3M National Science Foundation (NSF) grant. Link to abstract: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2015.1065218   Gibson, K., Carpenter, D.M., Moore, A.L., & Mitchell, T. (2015). Training the brain to learn: Beyond vision therapy. Vision Development and Rehabilitation, 1(2), 120-129. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the comprehensive cognitive training program, ThinkRx. Sixty-one children (ages 6-18) were given pretest and post-test cognitive assessments. Thirty-one students completed a 24-week cognitive training program in a LearningRx center. A matched control group of thirty children did not receive training. Multiple regression analyses indicated that treatment group membership was a statistically significant predictor of outcomes in long-term memory, logic and reasoning, working memory, processing speed, auditory processing, and Word Attack. The treatment group realized significantly greater gains in six of seven cognitive measures. Link to study: http://www.covd.org/?page=VDR_1_2   see all LearningRx...

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