Brain Training for Seniors

LearningRx Research: Brain Training for Early Alzheimer’s

Posted by on Oct 1, 2019 in Brain Training for Seniors | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: Brain Training for Early Alzheimer’s

Multidisciplinary Intervention Creates Neural Changes and Improvements in Cognition and Daily Function in Early Alzheimer’s: Study Shows Adaptation of Bredesen Protocol Promising in Slowing Clinical Cognitive Decline September 13, 2019 – The results of our study just published in the Open BioMedical (OBM) journal Integrative and Complementary Medicine highlight the benefits of a functional medicine approach to slowing cognitive decline in adults over age 55 with clinical cognitive impairment including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers examined changes in cognitive skills, brain connectivity, and daily functioning following a multifaceted anti-neuroinflammatory intervention that included physical exercise, mental exercise, a grain-free/sugar-free diet, anti-inflammatory nutritional supplements, sleep optimization, and stress management within the context of a functional medicine practice for five patients with varying levels of cognitive impairment.  The key findings include: • Improvement and stability in cognition. After the nine-month intervention, three of the five patients were no longer classified as cognitively impaired, while a fourth patient improved from moderately-to-severely impaired to mildly impaired. The fifth patient who entered the study with Stage 2 Alzheimer’s remained stable. • Improved daily functioning and outlook. Patients reported improved memory, attention, mental clarity, as well as increased energy, better mood, and improved outlook on life. • Changes in brain connectivity visible on fMRI. fMRI analyses revealed changes in the brain that suggest improved efficiency, as well as changes in network connectivity that correlated with changes on neuropsychological tests. The study was led by functional medicine physician Randolph James, MD, of True Life Medicine, neuroscientist Christina Ledbetter, PhD, of LSU Health Science Center and Dick Carpenter, PhD, from University of Colorado Colorado Springs, along with cognitive psychologist Amy Lawson Moore, PhD, and Terissa Miller, MS Psy, from Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research. Xymogen Pharmaceuticals (FL) donated the supplements for the study and Penrad Imaging (CO) conducted the fMRIs. “The MRI findings were indeed exciting,” says Ledbetter. “Not only that we could use functional MRI to detect changes in connections between regions of interest in the brain, but also that those changes directly correlated with changes on dementia assessments.” The intervention was an adaptation of the Bredesen Protocol, a novel multifaceted approach to reversing Alzheimer’s disease by targeting inflammation. Neuro-inflammation is a prominent finding in age-related cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Numerous cellular pathways are associated with inflammatory responses and successful treatment of inflammation likely requires targeting these multiple pathways. Although the current study included the same variety of therapeutic approaches seen in Bredesen’s work, the study departed from Bredesen’s research protocols by including structured cognitive training delivered by clinicians in scheduled clinic appointments. “We wanted to increase compliance to this critical pillar of the intervention by adding the human delivery element. We weren’t convinced that computer games could provide the intensity, complexity, and motivation required to drive neuroplasticity, so we opted for human-delivered cognitive training,” says Moore. “It paid off. Patients were 100% compliant with this aspect of the intervention.” The current study also used standard neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessments for all patients to enable statistical analysis of the outcomes. The full study, “Feasibility of a Functional Medicine Approach to Slowing Clinical Cognitive Decline in Patients Over Age 55: A Multiple Case Study Report” is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.21926/obm.icm.1903054  ...

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LearningRx Research Bibliography

Posted by on Sep 22, 2019 in Brain Training for ADHD, Brain Training for Children & Adolescents, Brain Training for Seniors, Brain Training for TBI | Comments Off on LearningRx Research Bibliography

LearningRx Brain Training Research Studies Here is the most recent bibliography of LearningRx research: Carpenter, D., Ledbetter, C., & Moore, A.L. (2016). LearningRx cognitive training effects in children ages 8-14: A randomized controlled study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30(5), 815-826. doi: 10.1002/acp.3257. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/acp.3257 Gibson, K., Carpenter, D.M., Moore, A.L., & Mitchell, T. (2015). Training the brain to learn: Beyond vision therapy. Vision Development and Rehabilitation, 1(2), 120-129. Retrieved from https://www.covd.org/page/VDR_1_2 Hill, O.W., Zewelanji, S., & Faison, O. (2016). The Efficacy of the LearningRx Cognitive Training Program: Modality and Transfer Effects. Journal of Experimental Education: Learning, Instruction, and Cognition, 84(3), 600-620. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2015.1065218. Jedlicka, E. (2017). LearningRx cognitive training for children and adolescents ages 5-18: Effects on academic skills, behavior, and cognition. Frontiers in Education, 2(62). doi: 10.3389/feduc.2017.00062. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2017.00062/full   Ishanpara, P. D. (2013). Cognitive rehabilitation with LearningRx: Preliminary improvements in memory after traumatic brain injury. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. UMI No. 3574228 James, R., Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D., Miller, T., & Ledbetter, C. (2019). Feasibility of a Functional Medicine Approach to Slowing Clinical Cognitive Decline in Patients Over Age 55: A Multiple Case Study Report. OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine, 4(3). doi: 10.21926/obm.icm.1903054 https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/MCI-Intervention_James-et-al.pdf Ledbetter, C., Moore, A.L., Mitchell, T. (2017). Cognitive effects of ThinkRx cognitive rehabilitation training for eleven soldiers with brain injury: A retrospective chart review. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(825). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00825. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00825/full Ledbetter, C., & Moore, A. (2018). Neuroimaging outcomes of a cognitive rehabilitation training program. Journal of Neuroimaging, 28(2), 225-233. doi: 10.1111/jon.12507. Retrieved from https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Neuroimaging-Outcomes-of-a-Cognitive-Rehabilitation-Training-Program_-J-of-Neuroimaging-excerpt.pdf Ledbetter, C., Faison, M.O., & Patterson, J. (2016). Correlation of cognitive training gains and resting state functional connectivity. Presented at Society for Neuroscience, November 2016, San Diego, CA. Retrieved from https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/SFNposters_CLedbetter.pdf Luckey, A. J. (2009). Cognitive and academic gains as a result of cognitive training. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. UMI No. 3391981 Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Ledbetter, C., & Miller, T.M. (2018). Clinician-delivered cognitive training for children with attention problems: Transfer effects on cognitive and behavior from the ThinkRx randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 14, 1671-1683. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S165418. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027847/ Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Miller, T.M., & Ledbetter, C., (2019). ThinkRx Cognitive Training for Adults over Age 50: Clinician-Caregiver Partners in Delivery as Effective as Clinician-Only Delivery. Psychology and Neuroscience, 12(2), 291-306. doi: 10.1037/pne0000162. Author’s copy available at https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/ThinkRx-for-Adults-Over-50_Psy-and-Neuroscience_2019.pdf Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Miller, T.M., & Ledbetter, C. (2019). Comparing Two Methods of Delivering ThinkRx Cognitive Training to Children Ages 8-14: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Equivalency. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, 3(3), 261-270. doi.org/10.1007/s41465-018-0094-z. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41465-018-0094-z Moore, A.L., & Ledbetter, C. (2019). The Promise of Clinician-Delivered Cognitive Training for Children Diagnosed with ADHD. Journal of Mental Health and Clinical Psychology, 3(3), 3-8. doi: 10.29245/2578-2959/2019/3.1180. Retrieved from https://www.mentalhealthjournal.org/articles/the-promise-of-cliniciandelivered-cognitive-training-for-children-diagnosed-with-adhd.pdf Moore, A.L., & Miller, T. (2018). Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 11, 25-35. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S152781. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5813948/ Moore, A.L., James, R., Carpenter, D., Miller, T., & Ledbetter, C. (2018). MRI and Neuropsychological Outcomes following a Functional Medicine Intervention with Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A Multiple Case Study. Presentation at American Psychological Association Annual Convention, August 2018, San Francisco, CA. Retrieved from https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/2018-APA_MCI-Poster_Moore-et-al.pdf Moore, A.L., & Ledbetter, C. (2018). MRI, qEEG, & neuropsychological outcomes following cognitive rehabilitation training for severe traumatic brain injury: A clinical case study. Presentation at Brain Injury Summit, Jan 2018, Vail, CO. Retrieved from https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/2018-TBI-Summit-Presentation_MooreLedbetter_web.pdf Moore, A.L., Ledbetter, C., & Carpenter, D. (2017). MRI and neuropsychological outcomes following cognitive rehabilitation training in traumatic...

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LearningRx Research: One-on-One Brain Training Improves Cognition and Daily Functioning for Adults over Age 50

Posted by on Feb 11, 2019 in Brain Training for Seniors, Uncategorized | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: One-on-One Brain Training Improves Cognition and Daily Functioning for Adults over Age 50

New Research Shows LearningRx Cognitive Training Provides Hope for Older Adults with Memory Problems February 8, 2019 – The results of our study just published in the APA journal Psychology and Neuroscience highlight the benefits of human-delivered brain training for adults over age 50, including better cognition as well as improved mood and life skills. In the study with 292 adults between the ages of 50 and 94 with memory or attention problems, researchers found statistically significant changes in long-term memory, processing speed, auditory processing, fluid reasoning, working memory, and visual processing for both treatment groups following 79 hours of one-on-one cognitive training. In addition, they noted improvements in mood, including bolstered confidence, hope, perseverance, reduced anxiety, and overall outlook. Participants also reported changes in work performance, hobbies and sports, driving, and managing daily responsibilities. The study was led by Amy Lawson Moore, PhD at Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research along with Dick Carpenter, PhD from University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Christina Ledbetter, PhD from LSU Health Sciences Center, and Terissa Miller, MS Psy also of Gibson Institute. “This is the first study on LearningRx cognitive training to evaluate changes in cognition plus the transfer of training to real life benefits for older adults,” explains Dr. Moore. “Many studies on brain training have shown improvements in the trained skills, but this is the Holy Grail of cognitive training—transfer to life improvements. We think the human element of delivery is the secret to achieving this transfer. That will be our next research focus.” The study adds to the growing convergence of evidence on the benefits of LearningRx clinician-delivered cognitive training which continues to distinguish it from the “brain games” industry. Dr. Ledbetter, a clinical neuroscientist, states, “The intensity in which a human being can deliver the training tasks is not something that can be replicated by a computer game. We believe it is that intensity coupled with the motivation of working with a personal trainer that drives the changes we are seeing.” The training program used in the study included 35 training procedures with more than 1000 variations that are sequenced in order of difficulty. A metronome and timer are added to the tasks to increase intensity and prevent mental breaks. Each training session lasts 60-90 minutes and participants either attended all training sessions in the clinic or split the sessions with caregivers trained to deliver part of the training at home. In the current study, both delivery methods resulted in similar positive outcomes. The study abstract, “ThinkRx Cognitive Training for Adults Over Age 50: Clinician-Caregiver Partners in Delivery as Effective as Clinician-Only Delivery” is available at https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fpne0000162 The full article can be accessed here on the corresponding author’s website: https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/ThinkRx-for-Adults-Over-50_Psy-and-Neuroscience_2019.pdf    ...

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LearningRx Research: MCI Study Presented at 2018 APA Convention

Posted by on Sep 5, 2018 in Brain Training for Seniors | Comments Off on LearningRx Research: MCI Study Presented at 2018 APA Convention

MRI and Neuropsychological Outcomes following a Functional Medicine Intervention with Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A Multiple Case Study.  August 31, 2018 — The preliminary results of our MCI study were presented at the 2018 American Psychological Association Annual Conference in San Francisco.  Using a multiple case study design, we examined neural connectivity with fMRI, executive function, memory, attention, reasoning, everyday functioning, and overall IQ score for 5 clients with varying levels of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) before the intervention, after 12 weeks on functional medicine (FM) protocols (grain-free/sugar-free diet, nutritional supplements, aerobic activity, optimized sleep & stress reduction) without cognitive training, and again following the addition and completion of 72 hours of cognitive training. In all five cases, improvement in both cognitive and life skills was achieved with a functional medicine protocol that included cognitive training. Normalization of the Default Mode Network (DMN) was evident along with the appearance of anti-correlations and decreased hyperconnectivity. A multidisciplinary approach to slowing or reversing cognitive decline appears to be promising. Link to presentation Reference: Moore, A.L., James, R., Carpenter, D., Miller, T., & Ledbetter, C. (2018). MRI and Neuropsychological Outcomes following a Functional Medicine Intervention with Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A Multiple Case Study. Presentation at American Psychological Association Annual Convention, August 2018, San Francisco,...

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